Grand Méchant Buzz

Auto Draft

Integrated Circuits (ICs) , also referred to as resistances, regulate the current flow in electronic circuits by limiting the amount of current that passes through a particular branch.

Resistors are commonly referred to simply as “resistances.” They are components designed to limit current flow; when integrated into a circuit, these resistors have a fixed resistance value, typically with two leads, and they restrict the amount of current that can pass through the branch to which they are connected. A resistor with an unchangeable resistance value is known as a fixed resistor. Those with variable resistance values are called potentiometers or variable resistors. An ideal resistor behaves linearly, meaning the instantaneous current passing through it is directly proportional to the applied instantaneous voltage.

Variable resistors used for voltage division have one or two movable metal contacts that press tightly against an exposed resistive element. The position of the contact determines the resistance between one end of the resistive element and the contact itself.

The relationship between terminal voltage and current in a resistor is defined by a specific function, reflecting the device’s ability to convert electrical energy into other forms of energy. This relationship is represented by the letter R, with the unit of measurement being ohms (Ω). Practical devices such as light bulbs, heating filaments, and resistors can all be represented as resistive elements.

The resistance value of a resistive component generally depends on factors such as temperature, material, length, and cross-sectional area. The physical quantity that measures the effect of temperature on resistance is the temperature coefficient, defined as the percentage change in resistance value for each 1°C increase in temperature. The primary physical characteristic of a resistor is its ability to convert electrical energy into heat energy, which is why it can also be considered a power-dissipating element; as current flows through it, internal energy is generated. In circuits, resistors commonly serve the roles of dividing voltage and current. As for signals, both alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC) signals can pass through a resistor.

Material composition

Composed of resistive material and structured in a specific form, resistors are two-terminal electronic components that serve to limit the flow of current within an electrical circuit. Those with unalterable resistance values are known as fixed resistors, while those whose resistance can be adjusted are referred to as potentiometers or variable resistors. In an ideal scenario, resistors are linear, meaning the instantaneous current passing through them is proportional to the instantaneous voltage applied across them. However, certain specialized resistors, such as thermistors, varistors, and other sensitive elements, exhibit a non-linear relationship between voltage and current.

Resistors are among the most frequently used components in electronic circuits, and they are typically organized into different series based on power rating and resistance value for circuit designers to choose from. Their primary role within circuits is to regulate and stabilize currents and voltages, functioning as current dividers and voltage dividers, as well as matching loads for circuit compatibility. Depending on the requirements of the circuit, resistors can also be employed for negative or positive feedback in amplification circuits, conversion between voltage and current, and as protective components against voltage or current overload during input surges. Additionally, when combined with capacitors, they form RC circuits, which can be used for oscillation, filtering, bypassing, differentiation, integration, and as timing elements.

To expand the range of resistance values and provide fine adjustments, cylindrical resistive elements use grooving methods, while planar resistive elements use etched serpentine patterns.

The voltage-current relationship at the terminals of a resistor is represented by its current-voltage characteristic curve. When the voltage and current are proportional (resulting in a linear characteristic), it is called a linear resistor; otherwise, it is referred to as a non-linear resistor.

The main parameters characterizing the resistor’s properties and characteristics include nominal resistance value and allowable deviation, rated power, load characteristic, and resistance temperature coefficient.

Nominal resistance value: It is the designed resistance value marked on the resistor using numbers or color codes. The units for resistance values are ohms (Ω), kilo-ohms (kΩ), mega-ohms (MΩ), and tera-ohms (TΩ).

Resistance values are manufactured according to standardized preferred number series, corresponding to allowable deviations. The marking methods for resistance values and allowable deviations include direct marking, color code marking, and alphanumeric symbol marking.

Allowable deviation: The maximum permissible deviation between the actual resistance value and the nominal resistance value, expressed as a percentage. Common tolerances include ±5%, ±10%, and ±20%. Precision resistors can have tolerances below ±1%, and high-precision resistors can reach 0.001%. Accuracy is determined by both the allowable deviation and irreversible resistance value changes.

Rated power: The maximum power dissipation allowed for the resistor during continuous operation at the rated temperature (highest ambient temperature). For each type of resistor, there is also a specified maximum working voltage. Even if the rated power is not reached, exceeding the maximum working voltage is not permissible, especially for higher resistance values. The symbol used to represent resistor power in circuit diagrams is shown in the provided figure.

Load characteristic: Resistors should not exceed their rated power when operating at temperatures below the rated temperature (tR). When the temperature exceeds tR, the load power must be reduced accordingly. Each type of resistor has specified load characteristics. Additionally, under low air pressure, the load is correspondingly reduced. For pulse loads, the average power is much lower than the rated power, and separate specifications exist.

Resistance temperature coefficient: It represents the average relative change in resistance value per 1℃ temperature change within the specified temperature range. It is expressed in parts per million per degree Celsius (ppm/°C). In addition to the mentioned parameters, other technical specifications include non-linearity (degree of deviation from linear relationship between current and applied voltage), voltage coefficient (relative change in resistance value per unit voltage change), current noise (effective value of noise potential generated by current flow in the resistive element, expressed using current noise index), high-frequency characteristics (relationship between resistance value and operating frequency due to distributed capacitance and inductance effects within the resistive element), and long-term stability (resistor’s irreversible changes in resistance value due to environmental conditions during prolonged usage or storage).

Latest Article
Sponsor
Sponsor
Discount up to 45% for this road trip this month.
Keep Reading

Related Article

活動設計的基石:舞台背景板的重要性

在舉辦令人難忘的活動時,背景對於搭建舞台和增強氣氛至關重要。 在舉辦令人難忘的活動時,背景對於搭建舞台和增強氛圍至關重要。 在公司會議、婚禮和音樂會等活動中,背景設計可以營造氣氛並增強整體美感。 我們將在這本詳盡的指南中探討從舞台設置的價格到背景印刷公司在實現願景中所扮演的角色的所有內容到背景設計和製作。 在這本背景設計和製作的全面指南中,我們將探討從舞台設定的價格到背景印刷公司的功能的所有內容。 在這本關於背景設計和製作的全面指南中,我們將探討從舞台設定的價格到背景印刷公司在將願景變為現實方面所扮演的角色的所有內容。 製作符合活動主題和訊息的視覺傑作是背景設計的目標,這不僅僅是簡單地選擇顏色和圖案。 背景設計涉及製作符合活動主題和訊息的視覺傑作,而不僅僅是選擇顏色和圖案。 了解客戶的願景和目標是設計過程的第一步,無論是否涉及為活動創建簡單的品牌背景在工作或華麗的舞台設置。 了解客戶的願景和目標是設計過程的第一步,無論是為工作活動創建一個簡單的品牌背景,還是為戲劇表演建立一個精緻的舞台。 了解客戶的願景和目標是設計過程的第一步,無論是為工作活動創建簡單的品牌背景,還是為戲劇表演創建華麗的舞台設置。 然後,設計師創建一個吸引觀眾的背景,並讓融合創造力、技術專長和產業知識的印象。 然後,設計師將他們的創造力、技術實力和行業知識結合起來,創造出一個吸引觀眾並留下深刻印象的背景。 然後,設計師透過融合創造力、技術專長和行業知識來創造一個吸引觀眾並給人留下深刻印象的背景。 活動在舞台背景上栩栩如生,為表演者、演講者和主持人提供了閃耀的舞台背景。 舞台背景營造氣氛,為與會者提供視覺上令人驚嘆的環境,從無縫織物背景到專門建造的風景元素。 舞台背景可以營造氣氛,為與會者提供視覺上令人驚嘆的環境,從無縫織物背景到特製的風景元素。 要創造吸引和激勵觀眾的沉浸式體驗,需要在當今競爭激烈的活動環境中投資高品質的舞台背景。 在當今競爭激烈的活動格局中,創造吸引和激勵觀眾的身臨其境的體驗需要投資於高品質的舞台背景。 背景設計完成後開始製作流程,將想法轉化為實際創作。 背景製作公司對於這個過程至關重要,因為他們利用尖端技術和專業工藝將願景變為現實。 背景幕製作公司在此過程中至關重要,因為他們使用尖端技術和專業工藝來實現願景。 製作團隊投入了大量精力,確保每個細節都準確、專業,無論是列印大型背景、創建客製化佈景還是安裝舞台元素。 製作團隊投入了大量精力,確保每個細節都準確且專業,無論是列印大型背景、創建客製化佈景還是安裝舞台元素。 根據場地的大小、設計的複雜程度以及所使用的材料,舞台搭建成本可能會大不相同。